2. Subclass: ORTHOGASTROPODA Ponder & Lindberg, 1996
[= PROSOBRANCHIA Milne Edwards, 1848 p.p. + OPISTHOBRANCHIA; = AZYGOBRANCHIA Spengel, 1881 p.p.]
  Order: Hypsogastropoda
SubOrder: Ptenoglossa
    SuperFamily: Triphoroidea
  Family: Triphoridae
Molluscs with small and elongated shell. The most evident characteristic of some species is the left-spiraled shell.
  Incertae sedis
SubFamily: Triphorinae

Genus: Triphora, Triforis, Mastonia, Monophorus, Inella, Viriola, Mastoniaeforis, Iniforis, Obesula, Litharium, Teretriphora, Cautor, Euthymella, Isotriphora, Eutriphora, Hypotriphora, Cautotriphora, Magnosinister, Aclophora, Torresophora, Mesophora, Subulophora, Tetraphora, Nanaphora, Opimaphora, Liniphora, Talophora, Latitriphora, Nototriphora, Hedleytriphora, Viriolopsis, Aclophoropsis, Bouchetriphora, Sagenotriphora, Cheirodonta

Triphora tubularis
(Laseron C.F., 1958)
6 mm.
Aclophora xystica
(Jousseaume, F.P., 1884)
7 mm
Nototriphora decorata
(Adams, C.B., 1850)
8 - 12 mm
Viriola cancellata
(Hinds, R.B., 184)
8 - 15 mm
Monophorus ornatus
Unknown Author 3.5 mm
Mastonia rubra
(Hinds, R.B., 1843)
to 10 mm

SubFamily: Metaxiinae

Genus: Metaxia, Seilarex

Unable to locate image
Metaxia excelsa
(Faber and Moolenbeek, 1991)
1.3 - 6.2 mm


Family: Cerithiopsidae
    Incertae sedis

Genus: Cerithiopsis, Seila, Ataxocerithium, Dizoniopsis, Joculator, Eumetula, Zaclys, Specula, Socienna, Mendax, Altispecula, Pilaflexis, Paraseila, Binda, Euseila, Conciliopsis, Potenatomus, Horologica, Clathropsis, Synthopsis, Tubercliopsis, Prolixodens, Sasamocochlis, Belonimorphis, Koilofera

Ataxocerithium serotinum
(Adams, 1855),
to 18mm.
Cerithiopsis flavida
(Golikov et Gulbin, 1978)
4 mm.
Joculator uveanum
(Melvill, J.C. & R. Standen, 1896)
3 mm
Seila adamsii
(Lea, H.C., 1845)
6 - 13 mm
Callisteuma thelcterium
Tomlin, J.R. le B., 1929


      SuperFamily: Eulimoidea
  Family: Eulimidae
Incertae Sedis

Melanella, Eulima, Niso, Stilifer, Thyca, Mucronalia, Apicalia, Scalenostoma, Vitreolina, Pyramidelloides, Robillardia, Sabinella, Hypermastus, Menon, Pelseneeria, Megadenus, Hemiliostraca, Stilapex, Amamibalcis, Curveulima, Eulitoma, Fusceulima, Hebeulima, Pictobalcis, Sticteulima, Eulimitra, Macertexta, Palisadia, Paramegadenus, Goodingia, Echineulima, Monogamus, Pulicicochlea, Asterolamia, Microstilifer, Peasistilifer, Trochostilifer, Vitreobalcis, Luetzenia, Ophioarachnicola, Concavibalcis, Echiuroidicola, Scalaribalcis, Prostilifer, Parvioris

Just a few of the Taxa are shown below:

Balcis thaanumi
(Pilsbry, 1917)
to 25 mm.
Echineulima robusta
(Pease, W.H., 1861)
10 mm
Melanella cumingii medipacifica
(Pilsbry, H.A., 1917)
13 mm
Niso hendersoni
Bartsch, P., 1953
to 28 mm
Pictobalcis articulata
(Sowerby, G.B. I, 1834)
12 - 21 mm
Thyca (Bessomia) crystallina
(Gould, A.A., 1846) 10 mm
Eulima auricincta
(Abbott, R.T., 1958)
2 - 4.9 mm
Pyramidelloides miranda
(Adams, A., 1861)
2.5 - 3.5 mm


      SuperFamily: Epitonioidea
  Family: Epitoniidae (Wentletraps)
"The Wentletraps, named for the Dutch word for a spiral staircase, present a surprising array of species, noted for their intricately geometric shell architecture. Most are distinguished by a long spire, very deep sutures, and characteristically strong axial varices that run across all of the whorls from the tip of the spire to the aperture. The shells are generally white and have a porcelain-like appearance...." Archerd Collection
Incertae sedis
Epitonium, Eglisia, Cirsotrema, Opalia, Amaea, Acirsa, Alora, Gyroscala, Cycloscala, Punctiscala, Funiscala, Eccliseogyra, Boreoscala, Berthais, Variciscala, Claviscala, Cylindriscala, Graciliscala, Cirratiscala, Papuliscala, Gregorioscala, Murdochella, Opaliopsis, Alexania, Chuniscala, Problitora, Narvaliscala, Plastiscala, Sagamiscala, Kurodacirsa, Narrimania, Periapta, Minabescala

Epitonium scalare
(Linnaeus, 1758)
60 mm.
Alexania inazawai
(Kuroda, T., 1943)
8 mm
Alora annulata
(Kuroda, T. & K. Ito, 1961)
12 - 18 mm
Amaea cerea
(Masahito, P., T.Kuroda & T.Habe, 1971)
20 mm
Avalitiscala audouini
(Jousseaume, F.P., 1912)
to 27 mm
Cirsotrema (Cirsotrema) bennettorum
(García, E.F., 2000) 20 - 33.2 mm
Discoscala edgari
(Boury, de, 1912)
to 55 mm
Eccliseogyra nitida
(Verrill, A.E. & S. Smith, 1885)
4 - 10 mm
Eglisia brunnea
(Habe, T. & S. Kosuge, 1964)
30 - 60 mm
Lampropalia enamelis
(Nakayama, T., 1995)
20 mm
Mazescala koyamai
Nakayama, T., 1995
Opalia (Dentiscala) crenata
(Linnaeus, C., 1758)
10 - 25 mm
Papyriscala tenuiliratum
(Sowerby, G.B. II, 1874)
20 mm
Parviscala godfreyi
(Cotton, B.C., 1938)
15 - 25 mm
Sthenorytis pernobilis
(Fischer, P. & A.C. Bernardi, 1857)
to 43 mm
Family: Janthinidae (Purple Sea Snail)
"The purple sea snails have rather fragile, globular shells. The animal has become planktonic, making no attempt at swimming. They are widely distributed, and along with other plankton, are swept across the ocean by wind currents. Purple sea snails rather typically attach upside down to the underside of the hydrozoan, Velella --a primitive colonial coelenterate resembling the jellyfish-- where they float and feed on the hydrozoan. If not attached to hydrozoans, Janthina may also construct a buoyant raft from a tough, transparent, bubble which it secretes from its foot..." Archerd Collection
    Incertae sedis

Janthina, Recluzia

Janthina (Janthina) janthina
(Linnaeus, C., 1758)
to 40 mm.
Recluzia hargravesi
(Cox, J.C., 1870)
30 mm
Family: Aclididae
Molluscswith very small, fragile shells, with few sculpture and they are sometines transparent. The Aclidae colonize the muddy bottoms at high depths.

Genus: Murchisonella, Awanuia, Cyclonidea,Austrorissopsis

Unable to locate image
Unable to locate image
Aclis attenuans
(Jeffreys, J.G., 1883)
2 mm
Awanuia porcellana
(Ponder, W.F., 1967)
to 3 mm


  SubOrder: Neogastropoda
    SuperFamily: Muricoidea
  Family: Muricidae (Murex and Rock Shells)
"Small to large snails -- very few adult species are truly minute (< 5mm). Most are sculptured with axial and/or spiral ribs, often elaborately produced into spines, fronds, tubercles, etc. Many groups with prominent varices. Aperture with or without teeth or lirae; a labral tooth may be present. Some groups with hollow anal canals, either embedded within the varix or intervarical. Siphonal canal absent to greatly elongated. Chitinous operculum present, apex central to terminal...
Digital Murex- G. Thomas Watters, Division of Molluscs, Museum of Biological Diversity, Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology, The Ohio State University
  SubFamily: Coralliophilinae
Most of this subfamily are white but some do possess a brilliantly coloured aperture. These molluscs live in close association with corals.

Genus: Rapa, Magilus, Latiaxis, Rhizochilus, Coralliophila , Mipus, Quoyula, Babelomurex, Hirtomurex, Emozamia, Reliquiaecava

Rapa rapa
(Linnaeus, C., 1758)
50 - 90 mm.
Latiaxis pilsbryi
(Hirase, Y., 1908 )
22 - 45 mm
Coralliophila (Coralliophila) erosa
(Röding, P.F., 1798)
15 - 35 mm
Quoyula madreporarum
(Sowerby, G.B. I, 1834)

19 - 30 mm
SubFamily: Muricinae
"Aragonitic shells, many with a chalky intriticalx. Small to quite large. Most with prominent varices, often bearing spines or webbing, spines simple or ramose. Nuclear whorls usually 2 or less in number but with numerous exceptions. Operculum unguiculate. Central radular teeth generally with three large cusps and two smaller cusps between them. ..." Ohio State
  Genus:Murex, Chicoreus, Hexaplex, Haustellum, Pterynotus, Phyllonotus, Muricanthus, Ceratostoma, Aspella, Naquetia, Pterochelus, Poirieria, Paziella, Phyllocoma, Dermomurex, Acanthotrophon, Chicomurex, Attiliosa, Pterymarchia, Ingensia
Murex pecten
(Lightfoot, J. in Solander, 1786)
85 - 150 mm
Chicoreus ramosus
(Linnaeus, C., 1758)
50 - 300 mm
Hexaplex cichoreum
(Gmelin, J.F., 1791)
to 150 mm
Haustellum haustellum
(Linnaeus, C., 1758)
103 - 140 mm
Pterynotus elongatus
(Lightfoot, J. in Solander, 1786)
to 90 mm.
Phyllonotus pomum
(Gmelin, J.F., 1791)
to 133 mm
Muricanthus nigritus
(Philippi, R.A., 1845)
133 mm
Ceratostoma foliata
(Gmelin, J.F., 1791) to 85 mm
Aspella producta
(Pease, W.H., 1861)
20 mm.
Naquetia cumingii
(Adams, A., 1853)
to 65 mm
Pterochelus acanthopterus
(Lamarck, J.B.P.A. de, 1816)
90 mm.
Poirieria zelandica
(Quoy, J.R.C. & J.P. Gaimard, 1833)
to 60 mm.
Paziella pazi
(Crosse, H., 1869)
to 50 mm.
Phyllocoma scalariformis
(Broderip, W.J., 1833)
to 38 mm.
Dermomurex abyssicola
(Crosse, H., 1865)
10 - 15 mm
Acanthotrophon carduus
(Broderip, W.J., 1833)
20 - 25 mm
Chicomurex superbus
(Sowerby, G.B. III, 1889)
60 - 85 mm
Attiliosa nodulifera
(Sowerby, G.B. II, 1841)
15 - 30 mm
Pterymarchia bibbeyi
(Radwin, G.E. & A. d' Attilio, 1976)
30 - 45 mm
Ingensia bracteatus
(Hinds 1844),
(Houart, 1987)
22 mm.
SubFamily: Rapaninae
"Calcitic shells. Small to fairly large sized, varying from fusiform to very widely ovate. Typically nonvaricate, but strong axial sculpture may be present. Sculpture absent, nodulose or spiny, never ramose. Siphonal canal short to absent, open. Central tooth of radula with 5 cusps (occasionlly 3). Operculum with lateral nucleus. ..." Ohio State
  Genus:Purpura, Drupa, Nassa, Thais, Nucella, Mancinella, Morula, Rapana, Stramonita, Vexilla, Vitularia, Pinaxia, Agnewia, Semiricinula, Neothais, Daphnellopsis, Drupina, Drupella, Dicathais, Habromorula, Phycothais
Purpura aperta
Blainville, H.M.D. de, 1832
37 mm.
Drupa rubusidaeus
(Roeding, 1798)
45 mm.
Nassa serta
(Bruguière, J.G., 1789)
50 - 70 mm
Nucella canaliculata
(Duclos, P.L., 1832)
30 mm.
Thais intermedia (Kiener, 1836)
to 42 mm.
Mancinella armigera
(Link, H.F., 1807)
75 mm.
Morula granulata
(Duclos, P.L., 1832)
to 30 mm
Vitularia miliaris
(Gmelin, J.F., 1791)
to 50 mm.
Rapana rapiformis
(Born, I. von, 1778)
76 - 125 mm
Stramonita bitubercularis
(Lamarck, J.B.P.A. de, 1822)
to 50 mm.
Pinaxia versicolor
(Gray, J.E., 1839)
23 mm
Agnewia tritoniformis
(de Blainville, 1833)
20-35 mm.
Semiricinula chrysostoma (Deshayes, 1844)
30 mm.
Vexilla vexillum
(Gmelin, J.F., 1791)
25 mm
Neothais harpa
(Conrad, T.A., 1837)
35 mm.
Habromorula fuscoimbricata (Sowerby, 1915)
to 25 mm.
Daphnellopsis fimbriata (Hinds, 1843)
15 mm.
Drupina grossularia
(Röding, 1798 )

to 28 mm.
Drupella rugosa
(Born, 1778)
20 - 40 mm.
Dicathais orbita (Gmelin, 1791)
60-120 mm.
Phycothais reticulata (Blainville, 1832)

SubFamily: Trophoninae

"Small to medium sized, usually fusiform, sometimes greatly so. Aperture usually without teeth or lirations. Axial and/or spiral sculpture usually present. Species may be spinose, lamellate, scabrous, or nearly smooth. Many have an intriticalx. Protoconch paucispiral. Operculum variable. Central radular tooth with five cusps in the few species studied...." Ohio State
  Genus:Trophon, Trophonopsis, Pagodula, Boreotrophon, Axymene, Comptella, Paratrophon, Anatrophon, Apixystus, Benthoxystus, Enatimene, Enixotrophon, Gemixystus, Litozamia, Ollaphon, Xenotrophon, Afritrophon, Fuegotrophon, Nipponotrophon, Leptotrophon, Scabrotrophon
Trophon geversianus (Pallas, 1774)
30 mm.
Trophonopsis orpheus
(Gould, 1849)
22 mm.
Pagodula pelseneeri
(Smith, 1915)
12 - 32 mm
Boreotrophon stuarti
(Smith, 1880)
47 mm.
Paratrophon quoyi (Reeve, 1846)
14 mm.
Apixystus stimuleus
(Hedley, 1907)
to 3.5 mm.
Benthoxystus columnarius
(Hedley & May, 1908)
to 18 mm.
Enatimene simplex (Hedley, 1903)
to 14 mm.
Enixotrophon carduelis (Watson, 1886)
50-63 mm.
Gemixystus laminatus (Petterd, 1884)
to 7 mm.
Litozamia petterdi (Crosse, 1870)
to 9 mm.
Xenotrophon euschema (Iredale, 1929)
to 21 mm.
Afritrophon inglorius (Houart, 1987)
7 mm.
Fuegotrophon pallidus (King & Broderip, 1832)
(Powell, A.W.B., 1951)
10 - 22 mm
Nipponotrophon echinus (Dall, 1918)
27 mm.
Leptotrophon marshalli (Houart, 1995)
10 mm.
Scabrotrophon lasius (Dall, 1919)
unable to locate image
unable to locate image
unable to locate image
unable to locate image
"The typhine shell is most peculiar, being characterized by the presence of a pronounced (sometimes amazingly pronounced) anal tube that does not arise from the varices, but from the inter-varical area. Only the last formed tube is functional, the others being sealed off from the inside. Similar anal tubes may be associated with the varices of other groups (Ponderia, for example) but these are considered to be independently derived and not true typhines. Many typhine species have very smooth or malleated shells giving them the appearance of being made of plastic or glass. Others are more rugose and a few are elaborately frilled. They may have quite complicated varices making it difficult to follow the ontogeny of some species. ..." Ohio State

Genus:Typhis, Siphonochelus, Typhina, Typhinellus, Typhisopsis, Tripterotyphis, Monstrotyphis, Prototyphis, Ponderia

Typhis belcheri
(Broderip, 1833)
Siphonochelus japonicus (Adams, 1863)
12 mm.
Typhina cleryi
(Petit, 1840)
15 - 25 mm
Typhinellus occlusum
(Garrard, 1963)

24 - 40 mm
Typhisopsis coronatus Broderip, 1833
Tripterotyphis lowei
(Pilsbry, 1931)
Monstrotyphis montforti
(Adams, 1863)
Prototyphis angasi
(Crosse, 1863)
15 to 25 mm.
Ponderia caledonica
(Houart, R., 1988)
15 mm
SubFamily: Ocenebrinae
"Small to fairly large, usually fusiform, shells calcitic (?). Varices absent or 3-10 in number. Most sculpture, when present, is scabrous. Although some species are winged as in some muricine groups, spinose species are rare. Intritacalx usually absent. Nuclear whorls short, often angulate. Siphonal canal usually closed. Inner surface of outer lip often denticulate; a few species with labral tooth. Operculum trapezoidal with lateral nucleus. Radula like that of Muricinae but bearing multiple minor cusps between the major ones...." Ohio State

Genus:Ocenebra, Ocinebra, Pteropurpura, Vaughtia

Unable to locate image
Ocenebra erinacea
(Linnaeus, C., 1758)
20 - 65 mm
Pteropurpura bequaerti
(Clench, W.J. & I. Pérez Farfante, 1945)
to 39 mm.
Vaughtia babingtoni (Barnard, 1969)
14-17 mm.


SubFamily: Ergalataxinae
"Aragonitic shell. 0-2 varices. The central radular tooth has 3 large hook-like cusps between which is a smaller cusp; laterally are 0-5 smaller cusps as well. Operculum with sub-lateral nucleus. ..." Ohio State


Genus: Cronia, Lataxiena, Orania, Maculotriton, Phrygiomurex, Pascula, Muricodrupa, Ergalatax, Cytharomorula, Spinidrupa, Lindapterys

Cronia konkanensis
(Melvill, J.C., 1893)
25 mm

Lataxiena fimbriata
(Hinds, R.B., 1844)
20 - 40 mm.

Orania grayi
(Dall, W.H., 1889)
to 23 mm
Maculotriton serriale
(Deshayes, G.P. in Laborde, L.E.J. & M. Linant, 1834)
11 - 24 mm
Unable to locate image
Phrygiomurex sculptilis (Reeve, 1844)
Pascula ochrostoma
(Blainville, H.M.D. de, 1832)
11 - 35 mm
Muricodrupa funiculus
(Wood, W., 1828)
25 mm
Ergalatax dattilioi
(Houart, R., 1998)
16 mm
Cytharomorula springsteeni
(Houart, R., 1995)
17 mm
Spinidrupa spinosa
(Adams, H. & A. Adams, 1853)
35 mm
Lindapterys rosalimae
(Barros, J.C.N. de, 1990)
SubFamily: Muricopsinae
"Generally small, fusiform or biconic. Sculpture ranges from extremely spinose to nearly smooth. Usually 4+ varices per whorl overlain by spiral threads. Many have an intriticalx.
Radula not flattened but more 3-dimensional. Operculum as in Muricinae...." Ohio State

Genus:Homalocantha, Favartia, Muricopsis, Pazinotus, Pygmaepterys, Xastilia

Homalocantha zamboi
(Burch & Burch, 1960 )
60 mm.
Favartia (Maxwellia) gemma
(Sowerby, G.B. III, 1879)
25 - 35 mm.
Muricopsis (Muricopsis) cristatus
(Brocchi, 1814)
10 - 35 mm
Unable to locate image
Pazinotus bodarti
(Costa, P.M.S., 1993)
6.5 - 12 mm
Pygmaepterys dondani
(Kosuge, S., 1984)
17 - 25 mm
SubFamily: Haustrinae
" Medium-sized, rather solid, biconic. Sculpture of axial lamellae and broad spiral ribs, somewhat chalky. Columella excavated. Outer lip crenulate, inner surface denticulate. Operculum with marginal nucleus..."
Ohio State

Genus: Haustrum, Lepsiella, Lepsithais

Haustrum baileyana
(Tenison Woods, 1881)

to 40 mm.

Lepsiella reticulata
(Blainville, H.M.D. de, 1832)
to to 18 mm
Lepsithais lacunosus (Bruguiere, 1789)
18 - 30 mm.


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