2. Subclass: ORTHOGASTROPODA Ponder & Lindberg, 1996
[= PROSOBRANCHIA Milne Edwards, 1848 p.p. + OPISTHOBRANCHIA; = AZYGOBRANCHIA Spengel, 1881 p.p.]
    Order: Hypsogastropoda
SubOrder: Neogastropoda

      SuperFamily: Buccinoidea
  Family: Buccinoidae (Whelks, False Tritons)
"The Buccinidae shell is usually characterized by rather deep sutures, a strong spiral shape, and a smooth surface generally without knobs, varices or similar ornamentation. The aperture is large, with a flaring lip that the whelk uses as a wedge to pry open the valves of all kinds of bivalve. Whelks are basically scavengers, and not particular as to what kind of clam they attack. They feed on carrion as well (Nielsen)..."
Archerd Collection
  SubFamily: Buccininae

Genus: Buccinum , Phos, Nassaria, Buccinulum, Babylonia, Cominella, Euthria, Clea, Volutharpa, Siphonalia, Penion, Ancistrolepis, Plicifusus, Glypteuthria, Prosipho, Bathydomus, Japelion, Afrocominella, Burnupena, Tasmeuthria, Fax, Eosipho, Siphonofusus, Bathyancistrolepis, Bayerius, Costaria, Kapala

Buccinum osagawai
(Habe, T. & K. Ito, 1968)
120 mm
Phos (Phos) varicosum
(Gould, A.A., 1849)
20 mm
Nassaria (Nassaria) sinensis
(Sowerby, G.B. III, 1897)
28 mm
Buccinulum (Euthria) ponsonbyi
(Sowerby, G.B. III, 1889)
35 mm
Cominella (Cominella) virgata
(Adams, H. & A. Adams, 1853)
40 mm
Clea helena
(Busch, von dem, 1847) 15 mm
Volutharpa ampullacea
(Middendorff, A.T. von, 1848)
40 mm
Siphonalia concinna
Adams, A., 1863
40 mm
Penion ormesi
(Powell, A.W.B., 1927)
180 mm
Plicifusus plicatus
(Adams, A., 1863)
40 mm
Afrocominella capensis
(Dunker, R.W. in Philippi, R.A., 1844)
45 mm
Burnupena lagenaria
(Lamarck, J.B.P.A. de, 1822)
32 mm
Tasmeuthria clarkei
(Tenison-Woods, J.E., 1875)
20 mm
Fax (Scaeofax) grandior
(Verco, J.C., 1908) 25 - 37 mm
Siphonofusus lubricus
Dall, W.H., 1918
40 mm
Aeneator (Aeneator) fontainei
Orbigny, A.D. d', 1841
Colus islandicus
(Gmelin, J.F., 1791)
80 - 200 mm
Euthriostoma saharicum
(Locard, E.A.A., 1897)
77 mm

SubFamily: Pisaniinae
  Genus:Fusus, Cantharus, Colubraria, Pisania, Pollia, Engina, Metula, Chauvetia, Caducifer, Enginella, Prodotia, Clivipollia, Cancellopollia
Fusus reticulatus
(Adams, 1855)
to 27 mm
Cantharus (Cantharus) dorbignyi gaillardoti
20 mm
Colubraria tortuosa
(Reeve, L.A., 1844)
30 - 50 mm
Pisania (Pisania) pusio
(Linnaeus, C., 1758)
30 - 48 mm
Pollia pulchra
(Reeve, L.A., 1846)
25 mm
Engina lineata
(Reeve, L.A., 1846)
12 mm
Metula crosnieri
Bouchet, Ph., 1988
60 mm
Chauvetia candidissima
(Philippi, 1836)
Caducifer decapitatus
(Reeve, L.A., 1844)
25 mm
Prodotia iostomus
(Gray, J.E. in Griffith, E. & E. Pidgeon, 1834)
20 - 30 mm
Clivipollia wagneri
(Anton, H.E., 1839)
to 30 mm
Cancellopollia gracilis
Vermeij, G.J. & R. Houart, 1998
30 mm
Unable to locate image
SubFamily: Unplaced

Genus: Neptunea, Volutopsius, Neobuccinum, Mohnia, Belomitra, Kelletia, Pareuthria, Manaria, Aulacofusus, Japeuthria, Falsimohnia, Kanamarua, Pararetifusus

Neptunea antiqua
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Volutopsius norvegicus
(Gmelin, 1891)
Neobuccinum eatoni
(Smith, E.A., 1875)
30 - 80 mm
Mohnia hondoensis Dall, 1913
43 mm.
Kelletia lischkei Kuroda, 1938
Pareuthria ringei
(Strebel, H., 1905)
13 - 22 mm
Aulacofusus johnsoni
(Dall, W.H., 1919)
Japeuthria cingulata
(Reeve, 1847)
33 mm
Unable to locate image
Kanamarua hyatintus
(Shikama, T., 1973)
60 mm
Family: Melongenidae (Whelks, Melon & Crown Conches)
"This family includes several distinctive shell forms. Whelks are generally found along the Atlantic coast of North America, particularly in muddy bays and estuaries, where they are the most conspicuous gastropods. Crown and melon conches are more tropically distributed and typically found in brackish or muddy waters near mangrove forests. All are carnivorous, feeding on clams and oysters. Whelks use their shell lip to pry open a clam sufficiently for inserting the proboscis and commencing feeding..."
Arched Collection

Genus:Volema, Pugilina, Melongena

Volema myristica
(Röding, P.F., 1798)
50 - 70 mm
Pugilina morio
(Linnaeus, C., 1758)
to 166 mm
Melongena corona
(Gmelin, J.F., 1791)
45 - 205 mm
Family: Fasciolariidae (Tulips, Spindle Shells, Horse Conchs)
"The family Fasciolariidae contains a wide variety of groups, such as the tulip shells, the horse conchs, and the spindle shells. All of them are carnivorous, usually feeding on bivalves and other snails. Most of them live near coral reefs or rocks offshore in tropical and semitropical waters.
Shells of the Genus Fasciolaria (tulips) are densely porcelain-like and rather large. They have a large body whorl, two or more folds on the columella, a short syphonal canal, and may be attractively patterned.
..." Archerd Collection

Genus: Fasciolaria, Latirus, Fusinus, Clavilithes, Peristernia, Dolicholatirus, Pleuroploca, Pseudolatirus, Latirolagena, Fascinus, Nodopelagia, Saginafusus, Microcolus, Fractolatirus, Granulifusus, Crassicantharus, Falsilatirus

Fasciolaria lilium hunteria
(Perry, G., 1811)
40 - 120 mm
Latirus filosus
(Schubert & A.J. Wagner, 1829)
35 - 66 mm
Fusinus (Fusinus) colus
(Linnaeus, C., 1758)
112.2 - 200 mm
Clavilithes noae
Peristernia incarnata
(Kiener, L.C., 1840)
25 mm
Dolicholatirus lancea
(Gmelin, J.F., 1791)
50 mm
Pleuroploca gigantea
(Kiener, L.C., 1840)
125 - 610 mm
Pseudolatirus pallidus
(Kuroda, T. & T. Habe, 1961)
60 mm
Latirolagena smaragdula
(Linnaeus, C., 1758)
35 - 60 mm
Fascinus typicus Hedley, 1903
Up to 7 mm
Unable to Locate Image
Nodopelagia brazieri
(Angas, G.F., 1877) to 37 mm

Saginafusus pricei

Microcolus lincolnensis
(Crosse, H. & Fischer, 1868) 10 mm
Fractolatirus normalis
Iredale, T., 1936
to 26 mm
Granulifusus consimilis
Garrard, T.A., 1966 to 44 mm
Unable to Locate Image
Crassicantharus noumeensis
Falsilatirus suduirauti
Bozzetti, L., 1995 30 mm


Family: Columbellidae (Dove Shells)
"Large family of numerous genera and many species living in warm and tropical waters. Some dove shells are tiny, few exceed an inch. Scavenging carnivores, they are especially active at night when they may be seen in sandy and muddy places at low tide. The family (which is also called Pyrenidae) is well represented in tropical waters. [from A&D, p.159]
Archerd Collection
  SubFamily: Columbellinae

Genus: Alia, Euplica, Zafrona, Cotonopsis

Pyrene ( Alia ) polonica
Euplica ionida
(Duclos, P.L., 1840)
5 mm
Zafrona isomella
Duclos, P.L., 1842
4 mm
Cotonopsis monfilsi
Emerson, W.K., 1993
40 mm

SubFamily: Pyreninae

Genus:Pyrene, Mitrella, Anachis, Astyris, Aesopus, Zafra, Seminella, Columbellopsis, Mazatlania, Pseudamycla, Parviterebra, Retizafra, Parametaria, Pseudanachis, Zella, Gatliffena, Exomilopsis, Nodochila

Pyrene flava
(Bruguière, J.G., 1789)
25 mm
Mitrella nympha
Kiener, L.C., 1841 11 mm
Anachis lyrata
(Sowerby, G.B. I, 1832)
14 - 20 mm
Astyris lunatus
(Say, T., 1826)
3 - 6 mm
Aesopus spiculum
(Duclos, P.L. in Chenu, J.C., 1846) 13 mm
Zafra hahajimana
(Pilsbry, H.A., 1904)
7 mm
Seminella virginea
(Gould, A.A., 1860)
3 mm
Mazatlania fulgurata
(Philippi, R.A., 1846)
11 - 14 mm
Pseudamycla rorida
(Reeve, L.A., 1859)
7 mm
Parametaria dupontii
(Kiener, L.C., 1849)
27 mm
Unable to Locate Image

Unable to Locate Image


Unable to Locate Image
Unable to Locate Image
Parviterebra trilineata A. Adams and Angas, 1863
12 mm
Zella beddomei Petterd, 1884
9 mm.
Unable to Locate Image
Unable to Locate Image
Nodochila pascua (Hertlein, 1962)


SubFamily: unplaced
  Incertae sedis

Genus:Ascalista, Indomitrella, Mokumea, Pleurifera

Unable to Locate Image
Unable to Locate Image
Unable to Locate Image
Indomitrella lischkei
(Smith, 1879)
10 - 12 mm
Family: Nassariidae (Nassa Mud Snails)
"The mud snails, or basket shells, are shallow water, usually intertidal, mud dwellers. They occur in large colonies, and are scavengers. A few of the several hundred species live in deep water. The operculum is chitinous (Abbott & Dance, 2000)...."
Archerd Collection:

Genus: Nassarius, Cyllene, Bullia, Demoulia, Hebra

Nassarius (Nassarius) arcularius
(Linnaeus, C., 1758)
18 - 40 mm
Cyllene grayi
Reeve, L.A., 1846
16 mm
Bullia tranquebarica
Röding, P.F., 1798
38 mm
Demoulia abbreviata
Gmelin, J.F., 1791
30 mm
Hebra subspinosus
(Lamarck, J.B.P.A. de, 1822)
15 - 20 mm



  SuperFamily: Volutoidea
  Family: Turbinellidae (Chank & Vase Shells)
Xancidae is a synonymous name sometimes given to the Turbinellidae family.
"Shells in the Turbinellidae family are generally large, thick and overall spindle-shaped. The coumella bears three to five, strong spiral teeth. They have a chitinous. claw-like operculum, and a quite large foot, which is characteristic of the Turbinellidae molluscs. The foot is used for smothering and feeding on worms and clams. Chanks are found in tidal muds, mainly of the Indian ocean and the Caribbean....Archerd Collection
  SubFamily: Columbariinae

Genus:Columbarium, Coluzea

Columbarium pagoda
(Lesson, R.P., 1831)
43 mm
Coluzea altocanalis
Dell, R.K., 1956
50 - 80 mm
SubFamily: Ptychatractinae

Genus:Latiromitra, Surculina, Benthovoluta

SubFamily: Turbinellinae

Genus: Syrinx, Turbinella

SubFamily: Unplaced

Genus: Exilioidea

SubFamily: Incertae sedis


Family: Olividae (Olive Shells)
"Shells of the family Olividae tend to be cylindrical, smooth and shiny, and variously patterned with numerous fine wrinkles. The spire is fairly low; the aperture is long, smooth, and without teeth; and, the columella shows folds. Like many gastropods, these molluscs maintain a highly polished shell, by pulling their mantle flaps over the exposed surface.

All members of the Olividae family are carnivorous sand-burrowers. Although in a different superfamily than the Muricidae, the Olividae secrete a similar mucus from which a purple dye can be made (Monfils, 2001) They are distributed in warm and tropical seas. ..."
Archerd Collection

  Genus: Ancilla, Ancillus, Amalda, Chilotygma, Anolacea, Sparella, Alocospira, Ancillista, Gracilispira, Exiquaspira
  Genus: Olivella, Belloliva, Cupidoliva
  Genus: Oliva
SubFamily: Unplaced
  Genus: Carmione, Tateshia
Family: Pseudolividae
"The Pseudolividae was previously regarded as a subfamily of the Olividae, but was elevated to family level on anatomical characters. The family has undergone a decline in diversity and geographical range over geological time, having originated in the Late Cretaceous and peaked in diversity in the Paleocene. There are now about 100 living species in 14 genera. ..." Shells of NSW
    Genus: Pseudoliva, Zemira, Melapium, Fulmentum, Benthobia,
Naudoliva, Fusulculus
Family: Mitridae
  SubFamily: Mitrinae
  Genus: Mitra, Eumitra, Charitodoron
SubFamily: Cylindromitrinae
SubFamily: Imbricariinae
  Genus: Imbricaria, Scabricola, Cancilla, Ziba, Subcancilla, Neocancilla, Domiporta
Family: Costellariidae (=Vexillidae Vexillum Miters)
"The Costellariidae family is closely related to the Mitridae family, and the life styles of these molluscs are similar. However, the Vexillum miters have been placed in their own family because of differences in anatomy and feeding...." Archerd Collection
    Genus: Vexillum, Zierliana, Thala, Austromitra
Family: Volutidae (the Volutes)
"Volutes are generally compact, sturdy, spindle shaped shells. Some are rare enough to command high prices because of their varied shapes and colorful patterns. Columellar folds are especially remarkable at the lower end of an elongated aperture. Most have both a short, deep syphonal canal and a canal at the top of the aperture. The Collection has a number of volutes exceeding 4 inches in size.

There are about 200 species of volutes. All of them are carnivorous, feeding on small marine invertebrate animals. Most of them inhabit deep seas and are abundant in warm, temperate waters, expecially around the coasts of Australia..."Archerd Collection

  SubFamily: Zidoninae
  Genus: Alcithoe, Livonia, Ericusa, Adelomelon, Miomelon, Arctomelon, Notopeplum, Zygomelon
SubFamily: Volutinae
  Genus: Lyria, Callipara, Calliotectum, Neptuneopsis, Fusivoluta, Harpulina, Teramachia, Lyreneta, Festilyria, Tenebrincola
SubFamily: Athletinae
  Genus: Athleta
SubFamily: Fulgorarinae
  Genus: Fulgoraria
SubFamily: Odontocymbiolinae
  Genus: Tractolira
SubFamily: Cymbiolinae
  Genus: Melo, Cymbiola, Amoria, Volutoconus, Cymbiolista, Nannamoria, Notovoluta
Family: Marginellidae (Marginellas, Margin Shells)
"Shells are ovate (egg-shaped), smooth and highly polished, white or brightly colored, and they always have prominent columellar folds. The spire is usually rounded off and short, or sunken below the enameled surface. Much like the cowries or the ovulas, the mantle flaps cover the shell, protecting its high polish. Most species are less than 3/4 inch, although a few larger species from West Africa may exceed 2 inches in size (Keen, 1958). ..." Archerd Collection
Incertae sedis
Marginellinae, Marginelloninae
Family: Harpidae
    Genus:Harpa, Morum, Austroharpa
Family: Volutomitridae
    Genus: Volutomitra, Conomitra, Microvoluta, Paradmete, Pusiolina,
Peculator, Waimatea, Magdalemitra
Family: Cystiscidae
    Genus: Cystiscinae, Plesiocystiscinae, Persiculinae, Granulininae


      SuperFamily: Conoidea
  Family: Turridae
  SubFamily: Borsoniinae
  Genus: Bathytoma
SubFamily: Conorbinae
Genus: Benthofascis
SubFamily: Crassispirinae
  Genus: Crassispira, Haedropleura, Austrodrillia, Carinodrillia,Turridrupa, Ceritoturris, Carinapex, Ptychobela, Lioglyphostoma, Miraclathurella, Epidirona, Buchema, Paradrillia, Mauidrillia, Aoteadrillia, Vexitomina, Inodrillia, Pseudexomilus, Belalora, Conorbela, Conticosta, Hindsiclava, Crassiclava, Doxospira, Maesiella, Graciliclava, Naskia, Kurilohadalia, Plicisyrinx, Nquma, Psittacodrillia, Funa, Naudedrillia, Calcatodrillia, Striatoguraleus
SubFamily: Daphnellinae
Genus: Daphnella, Raphitoma, Thesbia,Pleurotomella, Thatcheria, Gymnobela, Philbertia, Buccinaria, Teretia, Eubela, Eucyclotoma, Pontiothauma, Pseudodaphnella, Spergo, Aliceia, Otitoma, Bathybela, Phymorhynchus, Kermia, Rimosodaphnella, Antimitra, Veprecula, Exomilus, Nepotilla, Asperdaphne
SubFamily: Drilliinae
  Genus: Clavus, Drillia, Bellaspira, Spirotropis, Cymatosyrinx, Iredalea, Inquisitor, Elaeocyma, Kylix, Splendrillia, Plagiostropha, Agladrillia, Globidrillia, Leptadrillia, Syntomodrillia, Douglassia, Fenimorea, Cerodrillia, Neodrillia, Imaclava, Paracuneus, Horaiclavus, Tylotiella, Calliclava, Orrmaesia, Acinodrillia
SubFamily: Thatcheriinae
SubFamily: Turriculinae
SubFamily: Turrinae
Genus: Turris, Gemmula, Lophiotoma, Cryptogemma, Polystira, Xenuroturris, Fusiturris, Epidirella, Lucerapex, Viridoturris, Decollidrillia, Gemmuloborsonia
SubFamily: Zonulispirinae
  Genus: Compsodrillia, Zonulispira, Pilsbryspira
SubFamily: Mangeliinae
  Genus: Mangelia, Conopleura, Bela, Cytharella, Eucithara, Mangiliella, Clathromangelia, Lienardia, Pseudoraphitoma, Paraclathurella, Agathotoma, Guraleus, Kurtziella, Macteola, Leiocithara, Anacithara, Heterocithara, Marita, Liracraea, Benthomangelia, Acmaturris, Bactrocythara, Brachycythara , Cryoturris, Euclathurella, Glyphoturris, Ithycythara , Platycythara, Pyrgocythara, Saccharoturris, Tenaturris, Thelecythara,Cacodaphnella, Anticlinura, Neoguraleus, Stellatoma, Glyptaesopus, Antiguraleus, Kurtzia, Belaturricula, Pseudoetrema, Vitricythara, Apispiralia, Apitua, Paramontana, Turrella, Notocytharella, Thelycytharella, Bellacythara, Hemicythara, Fehria, Vitjazinella, Gingicithara, Citharomangelia, Papillocithara
SubFamily:Incertae sedis
SubFamily: Unplaced
  Genus:Awateria, Mioawateria
SubFamily: Clavatulinae
  Genus: Clavatula, Turricula, Perrona, Clionella, Pusionella, Makiyamaia, Toxiclionella, Benthoclionella, Scaevatula
SubFamily: Clathurellinae
  Genus: Borsonia, Cordieria, Genota, Clathurella, Mitromorpha, Glyphostoma, Typhlomangelia, Comarmondia, Asthenotoma, Drilliola, Microdrillia, Tomopleura, Borsonella, Anarithma, Lovellona, Suavodrillia, Etrema, Zetekia, Nannodiella, Scrinium, Paraborsonia, Filodrillia, Phenatoma, Typhlosyrinx, Darbya, Maorimorpha, Maoritomella, Mitrellatoma, Ophiodermella, Cruziturricula, Crockerella, Strombinoturris, Austroturris, Pulsarella, Arielia, Diptychophlia, Heteroturris, Corinnaeturris, Tropidoturris, Abyssothauma
SubFamily: Taraninae
  Genus: Taranis
SubFamily: Cochlespirinae
  Genus:Cochlespira, Leucosyrinx, Aforia, Apiotoma, Antiplanes, Megasurcula,
Clavosurcula, Schepmania, Knefastia, Parasyrinx , Comitas, Marshallena, Fusiturricula, Micropleurotoma, Anticomitas, Paracomitas, Antimelatoma, Carinoturris, Rhodopetoma, Nihonia, Pyrgospira, Abyssocomitas
SubFamily: Pseudomelatominae
  Genus: Pseudomelatoma, Hormospira, Tiariturris
SubFamily: Strictispirinae
  Genus: Cleospira, Strictispira, Inkinga
SubFamily: Oenopotinae
  Genus: Oenopota, Propebela, Curtitoma, Granotoma, Obesotoma,
Lorabela, Oenopotella
Family: Terebridae
    Genus:Species inquirenda, Terebra, Hastula, Duplicaria, Terenolla,
Family: Conidae
    Genus: Conus, Conorbis

      SuperFamily: Cancellarioidea
  Family: Cancellariidae
  SubFamily: Admetinae
  Genus: Admete, Bonellitia, Admetula, Zeadmete
SubFamily: Cancellariinae
  Genus: Cancellaria, Trigonostoma, Sveltia, Gergovia, Inglisella, Pepta, Fusiaphera, Nipponaphera, Vercomaris, Mirandaphera
SubFamily: Plesiotritoninae
  Genus: Plesiotriton , Loxotaphrus, Tritonoharpa, Africotriton
SubFamily: Unplaced
  Genus: Iphinoe, Scalptia, Iphinopsis, Oamaruia, Mericella, Waipaoa, Iphinoella, Neadmete, Solutosveltia, Habesolatia, Agatrix, Dellina, Momoebora



Super Order: Caenogastropoda
  Order: Sorbeoconcha
SubOrder: Architaenioglossa: Haller, 1890
  Name Author, Year
  SuperFamily: Cyclophoroidea (Terrestrial)
  Family: Cyclophoridae
    Genus: Leptopoma, Ditropis
Family: Diplommatinidae
Incertae sedis - Palaina reta
Diplommatina, Palaina, Velepalaina, Palmatina, Fermepalaina
Family: Pupinidae
    Genus: Pupina, Pupinella, Hedleya, Suavocallia


      SuperFamily: Ampullarioidea
  Family: Viviparidae
Incertae sedis -

Larina, Centrapala, Notopala


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