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(Links first, then books)


Please Note: These are the actual web addresses that I used for researching the material found in this article. No attempt will be made to keep them current. To find up-to-date web pages, please visit my Internet Resources Section.

If a web page ceases to exist, I will leave the original URL in scrip; however it will not be linked!


AAA721 Invertebrate Zoology:

These resources were produced by Anne Jones, Box Hill Institute of TAFE, in 1994. They were used to support the delivery of the old Victorian Invertebrate Zoology subject. It does not have the same focus as the new national module; but is nonetheless useful reference material. In particular the pracs can be used.

Appendix D. Glossary of Molluscan Terms:

Bivalve Anatomy:

Check out Seashells and Other Things from Assateague Beach   homepage for some very interesting reading. Excellent cephalopod paper and pictures.  Their home page also leads to many more very good web pages on the other molluscs Very. informative and some excellent diagrams to be found here.

The Cephalopod Page:

Check out this very informative site designed and edited by James B. Wood on Cephalopods.  It is very well done and fun as well.

Cephalopoda Cuvier, 1797:
An excellent cephalopod site by Richard E. Young, Michael Vecchione, and Katharina M. Mangold *    An excellent cephalopod paper and pictures.  Their home page also leads to many more very good web pages on the other molluscs

Chp 26: Invertebrates:

Textbook study of invertebrates
I.  What is an animal?
  A.  Most known organisms are animals (kingdom Animalia)
     1.  Of the 1.5 million known species, one-third are animals.
2.  Most animal species live on land, but the greatest diversity of animal phyla are marine.  The most diverse communities of animals are tropical coral reefs; 27 of the 30 animal phyla may be found here.

Class Gastropoda:

University of Michigan- Museum of Zoology - Animal Diversity Web.  Check into this site and their home page for other excellent molluscs articles.

Class Gastropoda:

Classification of the Phylum Molluscs:

A very informative introduction to the molluscs at a university entrance level.  There are even four test question sections that are fun to do.

Did you know an octopus has three hearts?

An informative site on the cephalopod and some other very interesting links such as the 1999 Giant Squid Expedition

Featured Creatures:

Giancarlo Paganelli's Cone Shells:
   Good site and lots of links to check out.

Glossary of Molluscan Terminology:

Invertebrate Zoology Course:
This site contains good university-level information on all the invertebrates - including molluscs.  There are references to a textbook, but a surprising amount can be gleaned from these notes - For those keeners who want to DIG DEEPER!!

Man and Mollusc Internet Resources Section:
Many more Malacological, conchological and other links.

An excellent article and diagram of the bivalve stomach and crystalline
style and how it functions in digestion

The Molluscs:Part 3:  the bivalves
The bivalves are the second largest group of molluscs with about 8,000 described species. These organisms, as the name implies, have two shells. Be sure to check out Odyssea's Newsletter when visiting this site or go direct to:

Mollusk:  Snails and other weird animals:
Oceanic Research Group  Dedicated to the conservation of the world's oceans through education.   Check out this excellent resource site at

(http://kalypso.cybercom.net/~dhe/Meadow/mollusks.html )

Site apparently no longer available

Mollusks, Slugs, Snails:

Home page and search available in French for this site.

Phylum Mollusca:
Check out MEER'S Home page at http://www.meer.org/meerhome.htm

It is an excellent educational resource center for marine biology subjects

Phylum Mollusca:
Montgomery College Library and Learning Resource Center.  Check out this site.  A great source for molluscs of all kinds and some very good links.

Neopilina:  A Living Fossil:

On May 6, 1952, ten living specimens of an extraordinary mollusc were discovered. While trawling off the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, the Danish deep-sea "Galathea" expedition hauled these specimens to the ocean surface from a depth of 3590 meters. They were given the name Neopolina galathea and their discovery has been described as "the most dramatic one in the history of malacology." It was an unusual discovery in more than one way.


This site is dedicated to the study of Nudibranchs (Phylum: Mollusca Class: Gastropoda  Subclass: Opisthobranchia, Order: Nudibranchia), the colourful and bizarre marine slugs found throughout the world's seas and oceans.


OBIS Indo-Pacific Molluscan Database
"This site currently provides access to nomenclatural, distribution, and ecological information on names representing species of Indo-Pacific Mollusks. Georeferenced specimen records from ANSP related to these names are available for search through the OBIS global digital atlas"


Phylum Molluscs
I was unable to get into this site directly but you can go through another door here:  Welcome to Northern Michigan University's WEB http://vm.nmu.edu/
It's a good schematic paper of the Phylum molluscs

Reefkeepers's Guide to Invertebrate Zoology:

There are some great articles and  lecture notes by Rob Toonen on molluscs in this site.  There are quite a few excellent articles on their Aquarium Net as well and also notes on joining their Reef-List.

Compton's Encyclopedia is a good source for finding basic information on molluscs and their shells and for related subjects such as pearls.

Snails Not Slow at Evolution:
Have fun checking out the many sites available on this ABC News Science page. This is just one of many of their articles that I have read.  Good site for kids and adults alike.

Study of Marine Life:

A good introduction to many marine invertebrates at a junior school level


Systema Naturae 2000 / Classification
"The classification of life is changing rapidly. As new techniques reveal more about the phylogenetic relationships between taxa, the tree changes shape almost every day. Taxonomy today is more exciting than ever before, but this constant change creates a need for stability and insight into the relationships between the classifications themselves. Systema Naturae 2000 is trying to satisfy the need for insight into the relationships between the classsifications and ventures into a journey on the vast ocean, named taxonomy."


The following three sites are private sites and require permission from the owner to view them.  They are excellent papers and worth pursuing the University of Warwick, Biological Sciences:

  1. Class Monoplacophora
  2. Class Polyplacophora
  3. Class Aplacophora


World Biodiversity Database:
ETI, the Expert Center for Taxonomic Identification, is a not for profit foundation, dedicated to improve on a global scale the quantity, quality and accessibility of taxonomic information, based on an initiative of UNESCO.


World Sea Shells:
An excellent site for all sorts of pictures of molluscs and some basic information.


Zool 250 - Greek & Latin Roots:

An excellent source for looking up many Latin and Greek word roots. A reproduction done by the University of Alberta from Bailey 1999.Byll. Malacol.Soc. Lond. 32: 6-7


Books Used


Invertebrate Zoology  6th edition
Robert D Barnes, PhD  and E.E. Ruppert
Published by W. B. Saunders Co.  1994

Brusca & Brusca
Sinauer Associates, Inc. Sunderland, Mass   1990

Kozloff. E.N.
Saunders Publishing, Harcourt
Brace College Publishers, Philadelphia. PA  1990

Biology of the Invertebrates
Jan A Pechenik
Published by Prindle, Weber & Schmidt, Boston   1985

College Zoology
Hegner and Stiles
Published by the Macmillan Company, New York   1963

Reader's Digest Illustrated Encyclopedic Dictionary
Published by the Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston   1987

The Velliger   A Glossary of A Thousand-and-One Terms used in Conchology
Compiled by Winifred H. Arnold  March 15, 1965

All the World's Animals    Aquatic Invertebrates
Torstar Books
New York, NY 10017    1985